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Everything You Need To Know About Throw Pillows, Cushions, And Bed Pillows, Including What To Stuff Inside

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To say life would be hard without pillows would be putting it mildly. Where else would we hide a tooth for the Tooth Fairy? What else would we hit each other with in a harmless fight? Beyond their practical function as a headrest when we sleep and a way to soften hard furniture when we sit, pillows can be a dramatic decorating accent and are among the easiest projects to sew. We have dozens of pillow projects for you to choose from right here at Sew4Home. For this article, we thought we'd pull together everything you need to know before launching into pillow making: a little history, the basic types, and what we recommend stuffing inside. We heartily endorse the huge variety of Fairfield pillow inserts and fillers, and jumped at the chance to have them sponsor this article. We didn't even have to sleep on it.

A brief history of pillows

As long as humans have laid down to sleep, we've used pillows. Nobody has found a caveman pillow, because soft items don't last for tens of thousands of years. But we do have pillows that have survived from ancient times, from both China and Egypt.

You can go to a museum and see an unwrapped mummy with his head still resting on his original pillow. (We're not showing that here in case you're reading this at lunch.)

What survives better than soft pillows are the ancient depictions of them. Carvings from Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Americas all show royalty seated on cushions. Below is a re-created Roman sitting room.

Wealthy Greeks slept with their heads and feet resting on ornately embroidered cushions. Ancient Egyptians, who believed the head to be the seat of life, not only spent heavily on lavish pillows for themselves, they also placed them in the tombs of their honored dead. The Chinese thought soft pillows robbed the body of its vitality and therefore made their pillows from wood, leather or even ceramic.

Until the mid-1800s, people slept in a position that was closer to sitting up than lying down. Using a combination of a large bolster pillow and two or three smaller square pillows, the sleeper would prop herself against the bed's headboard. This was thought to be a healthier position for repose

An ancient pillow tradition we still honor today

In Ancient Egypt, pillows were a sign of wealth and prestige and were often used to carry ornamental items, such as precious jewels. The amount of money a family had determined the number of jewel-covered pillows on display. Similarly, the Romans used pillows to present precious items to the bride and groom during a wedding ceremony. A page would be selected to bring in pillows laden with gifts during the ceremony. 

Royal families would present the couple with crowns brought in on a pillow. 

Today, the pillow continues as the traditional way to transport wedding rings down the aisle, usually in the shaky hands of the bride or groom's youngest male relative.

What are the different types of pillows? 

With all the different shapes, sizes, fabrics, and embellishments, the varieties of pillows are endless. But you can group them into a few basic types.

Toss/Throw Pillow

The name says it all. These are small, decorator pillows you can toss onto a chair, a couch, a bed – anywhere you need a splash of color and design. They can be any shape and really any size, although if you go much larger than 24" along one side, you are venturing into the realm of the pillow's slightly bigger cousin, the cushion. The distinguishing trait is how the seam is finished.

Knife edge

Your basic pillow. The side seams taper into nice, sharp corners.


If your pillow has depth and dimension, you have a box-edge pillow, which doesn't always have to be "box shaped" as shown above. Usually the edges are defined with contrasting piping to show off the added dimension.


A flange is fabric that extends out from the side seams, usually at least two inches or more. It softens the look of the pillow, and can also be done in a contrasting fabric.


Also known as welting, this is a covered cord that is sewn into the seam as a decorative detail. It's like an outline for the pillow. Self-piped means the cord is covered in the exact same fabric as the body of the pillow. Contrasting is just that: a different color, pattern or texture to define the edge.


This covers any heavily decorated pillow. It can include fancy trims around the edges, such as beading and fringes, or dimensional adornments attached to the front of the pillow, like embroidery, beading, tassels, and/or buttons.


The next step up in size from the pillow is the cushion. Giant floor pillows, chair pads and meditation rounds are all members of the cushion family. They can take any of the shapes described above, but since they are usually meant to be sat upon, be careful about adding too many embellishments to the top of a cushion. Unless you like to see your guests squirm.

Bolster or Roll

Cylindrical, which is a fancy word for tube-shaped, the bolster is a classic pillow type. Bolsters are the manicotti pasta of the pillow world. Adding a bolster shape to any grouping of pillows always adds interest. And, it's fun to decorate the ends with gathers, tassels, buttons and ties. If you can't find just the right size bolster pillow form, you can make your own by rolling up quilt batting. Roll it snugly and fit it inside your bolster cover, just as you would a pillow form.

Bed Pillow

Our favorite kind. The one our head crashes into at the end of a long, home-décor-sewing day. In this case, you're often better off simply buying the actual pillow insert, but it's super fun to make your own pillowcases. They make great, personalized gifts! Just remember the four basic sizes:

Standard: 19" x 26"

Queen: 19" x 30"

King: 20" x 36"

Euro: 26" x 26"

Body Pillow

A bed pillow on steroids is a body pillow. Lots of people love to hug these while they sleep. They can also be lifesavers for pregnant women when positioned under a growing belly to allow a welcome alternative to flat-on-your-back sleeping. Body pillow forms can be purchased, and you can simply make a giant pillowcase as a cover. Or, you can craft your own body pillow using polyester, wool, cotton or down stuffing, depending on your desired firmness.

Another very popular "shaped resting pillow" is the Nursing Pillow.  


Usually this word stands for an impostor or false promise. But, in the home décor world... a pillow sham is a lovely decorative covering for a pillow, often with a deep flanged edge. Pillow shams are a quick and easy way to change out the look of your pillows and update a room for a new season, a holiday celebration, or just because you feel like it.

What to stuff inside your pretty pillow cover

We tell our kids, "It's what's on the inside that counts." It's true with people and with pillows. What you stuff inside helps them hold their shape and makes them firm or soft in texture.

A hundred years ago, down feathers were the premium filler for pillows. If you couldn't afford that, you stuffed your pillows with chicken feathers. And if you were really poor, like Laura Ingalls Wilder, you stuffed your pillowcase with straw.

But fifty years ago, pillow makers got an attractive 4th option: a filler that was fluffy, comfortable, and economical. Sam Young introduced a new kind of space age fiber that revolutionized stuffing. It was called Poly-Fil®.

The Fairfield Processing Company

In the 1960s, Young's company, the Fairfield Processing Corporation, had been processing natural fibers for hats for more than 20 years. Looking to expand his product line, Sam and his son Robert introduced an innovative polyester fiber that was perfect for stuffing toys. It held its shape. You could wash it. Not only did Poly-Fil® became the favorite filler for crafters everywhere, it soon found its way into millions of pillows.

The most choices in pillow inserts

Today, Fairfield is still family run (led by the founder's grandson, Jordan). After revolutionizing the quilt batting and pillow form markets with innovative polyester fiber, the company has returned to its natural fiber roots. They now produce the most innovative and diverse line of products you can find anywhere. 

In case you're new to this, a pillow insert is a pre-filled pillow form in a plain white case that's ready for you to stuff into the beautiful pillow cover you're making. These inserts can be square, round, rectangular, or made of foam. 

Fairfield has combined numerous types of fiber content and cover fabrics. That's a real plus, because you want to be able to choose exactly the right kind of insert to match your pillow's purpose. Another thing we like about Fairfield pillow inserts is that they're super easy to find. They're available at the big box stores, national fabric stores, as well as your favorite local quilt shop and online retailers.

Choosing the right insert

Below is a brief guide matching the most common pillow types to the best natural options, synthetics, and blends. The links will take you directly to the Fairfield Factory Store, which sells a good variety of the the popular shapes and sizes. But as mentioned above, Fairfield products are easy to find at numerous online and in-store locations, and the variety of available sizes and styles will vary at each outlet. 

Crafter's Choice®

Medium-firm support - a great all-around pillow choice for everyday use. They have a 100% polypropylene cover and 100% polyester fiberfill stuffing.

Weather Soft™

These outdoor pillow inserts boast a water repellent shell that keeps the inner 100% polyester fiberfill from becoming saturated in wet weather. 

Soft Touch®

You can have a down-like feel but with easier care: Soft Touch® inserts are filled with Poly-Fil Supreme fiberfill. Their cover is made from 65% polyester/35% cotton that's soft but durable. This category has the largest variety of sizes and shapes, including the new 10" and 12" Pillow Balls.

Home Elegance™

Thanks to a special, fine denier polyester gel fiberfill, these inserts provide a luxurious feel and high-end plushness. The cover is a 100% cotton, 300-thread count jacquard.

The links below for these more specialized options will take you to the main Fairfield World website for all the product details. 


The classic feel of down at a much more economical price. The traditional Feather-Fil® inserts are 95% feathers and 5% down in a 100% cotton, down-proof cover. They're sturdy enough for everyday use, but do come with a dry-clean-only recommendation.


Looking for something plush but a little different? Nature-Fil™ inserts are filled with 50% polyester and 50% rayon fiber made from bamboo.


Long-lasting beauty outside, earth-friendly inside. A uniquely soft and silky texture. The cover is 100% cotton and the filler is 100% rayon fiber made from bamboo.

Picking the right size insert

Inserts come in a myriad of standard sizes, but it isn't completely open-ended. Therefore, it's most efficient to make your pillow cover with a standard insert size in mind. However, you can create unique sizes and shapes by using filler or foam products.

And speaking of choosing the size of the pillow form for your project, you want one that's a half inch up to two inches larger than your finished pillow cover. For example, make a 15" x 15" cover for a 16" x 16" pillow insert. This isn't a hard and fast rule; sometimes you want the look of a roomy or slouchy cover, but in general, overstuffed pillows look best.

How about stuffing it yourself?

Scarecrow went to see The Wizard Of Oz to get a brain. But what he really should have asked for was a better stuffing material than straw! Advances in fiber technology have given sewers and crafters an amazing array of easy-care options.

Let's say you're making a pillow you're going to stuff yourself, and you want it to have a soft, down-like feel. You'd want to use Soft Touch® Poly-Fil Supreme. It's made from a blend of siliconized polyester fibers that stay soft without clumping. And it's even machine washable, following Fairfield's instructions.

It's our favorite for our cute stuffed animal pillows. 

Want extra softness? Add a little batting.

You can add quilt batting to pillow inserts to get a specifically needed effect. For instance, if you have big sofa cushions that need the stiffness of foam to stand up, you can soften them by wrapping their foam core with quilt batting. It will give a plush feel and nicely fill out your pillow covers.

Batting can also give shaped pillows a smooth finish. We used this technique in our Box of Chocolates heart pillows shown above.

Fairfield is famous for their batting selection that ranges from the classic Poly-Fil® polyester battings to the Nature-Fil™ battings made from cotton, wool, and bamboo fibers to the new American Spirit Batting™ sold only in independent quilt shops. 

Your best choice for custom cushions

If you need to create a cushion that's a custom size or you need to add foam to help fill out a larger cover, we recommend Fairfield's NU-Foam®.

This unique product is a densified polyester that will not yellow or disintegrate, resists mildew, and is washable and non-allergenic. Many of our loyal S4H followers will recognize our choice of NU-Foam® for our baby bumpers, roll-up cushions, and more.

Alternative pillow stuffing

Because you keep your face on your pillow for hours each night, you should be careful about "alternative" stuffing. For instance, we haven't been impressed by the people filling their homemade bed pillows with old pantyhose, fabric scraps or shredded newspaper.

But there are some alternative fillers that people do use for health reasons precisely because they have a beneficial fragrance or other property. Some of these are buckwheat, millet, and even hemp.

So now you know everything you need to know to sew a slew of pillows.

Part of the fun is that they're so easy to make, you can try something just to see if it works. Take a look through the Pillow & Cushions category under the Projects tab above. Or browse through all the pillow possibilities in our Project Index

Our thanks again to all the good folks at Fairfield World for sharing their stories of the soft stuff. 


Comments (34)

paula said:
paula 's picture

I need to make a long cushion for the backrest section of sitting on my daybed.  It should be "hard" enough to provide stiff support.  The daybed is the size of a twin mattress, so sitting "back" on the bed is uncomfortable.  Any recommendations for "stiff" foam (or something)?  Thanks.

judypr said:
judypr's picture

I made bolsters for daybeds for our bonus room - I found foam bolsters online that were perfect - two per bed. Once I received the bolsters I made covers to suit from the matching fabric to the mattress cover that I also made. 

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@Paula - With a piece that large, your best bet is likely to be to go to an upholstery shop or foam supplier to get quality foam - plus they can cut it to the size you need. One trick we often do to "soften" the foam is to wrap it with a high-loft polyester batting prior to covering with fabric.

Stitching Amy said:
Stitching Amy's picture

Hip bursitis causes sitting on hard surfaces to be extremely uncomfortable, so I carry a seat cushion in my car to have on hand for hard plastic or wood seating. I am about to make a new cushion from some lovely upholstery fabric given to me by son and daughter-in-law. My question is, what filling would you recommend for seat cushions which are sat upon and presumably should have more support and durability than a bed or couch pillow?

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@ Stitching Amy - Seat cushions are traditionally foam -- sometimes just the foam block, sometimes wrapped in a lightweight batting. There are several densities of foam, so you'd probably want to go to a store that sells it and actually touch it for yourself to determine how firm you'd want it to be. We actually have a local "foam dude" that we use because he carries a nice range of thicknesses and densitites, but there are also options available from your local sewing and craft stores. Fairfield makes Project Foam and NuFoam, which are both readily available from many retail outlets. 

Marianne Brown said:
Marianne Brown's picture

I need to make several large dog beds with removable covers. I don't know what fabric to use for the inside pillow/stuffing cover. The commercially made dog beds that have removable covers use some sort of white, very light weight stuffing cover which has "mini holes" over the entire piece. Any ideas? Thanks

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@Marianne - What you're describing kind of sounds like a perforated foam. And, if your beds do need to be quite large, a foam core is going to likely be easier than a loose filler. Check with your local upholstery foam shop for options; they will usually cut to size for you as well. You can then wrap the foam in high-loft batting for a softer surface. In addition, for pet beds, many people like to then wrap the entire thing in a thin plastic bag. If you want to use filler, you might take a look at Pellon's Cluster Fiber Filler - it's denser than most: http://www.pellonprojects.com/products/perfect-loft-cluster-fiber-fill/

Marianne Brown said:
Marianne Brown's picture

Thanks for your reply. This is definitely not a foam product. It's a super thin, super lightweight fabric that, quite honestly, would probably be pretty easy to tear by hand. I wanted to use that fabric rather than a cotton/poly covering for the stuffing only due to the fact that it's so lightweight. I'm making 24" x 36" x 4" beds, so it would get quite heavy if I used a cotton/poly fabric to cover the stuffing. Any other thoughts? I'd appreciate it. I do have a a piece of the fabric available if I could send a picture to you. 

Marianne Brown said:
Marianne Brown's picture

I just came across something that might be the fabric I'm referring to. It's called 100% Polypropylene Spunbonded Nonwoven Fabric. Is anyone familiar with this fabric? And, do you know where to buy it retail? I'm open to other fabrics, as long as it's lightweight.

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@Marianne - We've not had any experience wtih that fabric/product, but it sounds like you are on the right track. Best of luck!

Elaine Everitt said:
Elaine Everitt's picture

I have been looking through your projects for a quillow pattern. i made one ages ago. They are fun... a quilt inside a cushion that folds inside. I cannot see one.

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@Elaine - We don't have a quillow projects on our site, but it's a common item. I'm sure you could find lots with a simple Google search. In the meantime, we'll also add your suggestion to our You Asked 4 It list!

Betty said:
Betty 's picture

New to sewing.  How would I line a pillow cover when using a lighter weight cotton fabric.

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@Betty - There is no one final answer for your question since there are so many variables in terms of the fabric, the size and shape of the pillow, the filler, etc. In general, you could try layering with a fusible fleece. That would add stability but would still be soft. You would likely want to cut the fleece smaller than the outer fabric in order to keep the extra bulk out of the seam allowance. Take a look through a few of our Pillow projects for more helpful tips and techniques. 


Jenifer W said:
Jenifer W's picture

I'm having some 18 X 18 throw pillows for my couch made. Every store bought throw pillow has fallen apart or become clumpy within months (we have 2 small children likely playing a role).  We had some pillows purchased from a furniture store years ago that stayed full held their shape for years (a feather would pop out now and then so perhaps they were down?). Wish we'd kept them and just recovered!  When I went to order new ones from the same store they were $113 each!  Sorry, I'll get to my question.  

What would you suggest as the best option for filling? I'm looking for something that holds it's shape.  I'd prefer to pay extra for quality then buy new pillows every few months.  Any suggestions would be appreciated - thanks!

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@Jenifer - You do get what you pay for when it comes to pillow forms. We've had very good luck with the Home Elegance line from Fairfield, which you can often find at sewing and craft stores. And although we haven't tried them ourselves, we've heard good things about the pillow forms from Pottery Barn. Links below for both:



Pearl Greenberger said:
Pearl Greenberger's picture

I need cushions for my vintage kitchen chairs, which are looking kind of shabby. Are there forms that are chair-shaped - straight in front and curved in back? If not, how would I make one from a square form?

Joanne Leiws said:
Joanne Leiws's picture

There is someone who is making a special size and shaped pillow for an elderly person and they want Cotton filler.

Can you recommend a brand and where can I find 100% cotton filler for stuffing this pillow that is not batting?

Anonymous said:
Anonymous's picture

Some of this was helpful, but honestly, a lot of it read like an ad for Fairfield.

I am fairly new to sewing, and this is my first go at pillows, but are there other brands out there? 

I mean there literally isn't a section listed about filling pillows that doesn't mention Fairfield... 

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

As mentioned above in the introduction ("We heartily endorse the huge variety of Fairfield pillow inserts and fillers, and jumped at the chance to have them sponsor this article. We didn't even have to sleep on it."), this post was sponsored by Fairfield, so yes, it is the recommended brand throughout this article. There certainly are other options out there, which are easy to find - many of the features are similar. 

Caryl said:
Caryl's picture

I plan on making pillows regular sized about 13 x 13. How many oz of stuffing should I use to make it fairly comfortable?

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@ caryl - There's no hard and fast rule because "comfortable" is based on your own likes and dislikes. In general, you'd probably want to figure about 16-20 ounces, but there are so many variables, it's always best to get a larger bag of filler and simply stuff it until you have a shape and feel you like. 

Pam Rubin said:
Pam Rubin's picture

What do you call the "pillow liner" - the plain cotton (or otherwise) liner that you stuff w/polyfil?

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@ Pam Rubin - I don't know that it has a super official name. We usually just refer to it as the insert cover. 

Kel Rose said:
Kel Rose 's picture

I'm looking for recommendations to make scented pillows. At first I was just going to stuff my pillow cover with all herbs( small pillows) then I thought about using toss pillow forms and making my covers. BUT how would you add your herbs/ scented touches? I'm stumped as I'm ne to all things creative!;)  I don't want to make things more difficult than they are, I tend to overthink! Any and all help would be most appreciated! 

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@ Kel Rose - if the pillows were small, you could fill with all herbs. But they wouldn't be very comfy. We've made a number of traditional very small sachet pillows, using both lavendar as well as rice scented with essential oils. You can find these in our Project Index. For a larger pillow, you could mix the herbs with a polyester filler. We haven't tested this idea ourselves so I can't tell you the percentage of filler to herbs to get a good scent that will last. Before you make a bunch, you might want to consider trying a few muslin prototypes to test different levels of herbs or even different types. This would also give you a way to see how long the herbs keep smelling wonderful.

asha sharma said:
asha sharma's picture

How about filling with dry herbs from garden at end of the season.

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@ asha sharma - you could use a bit in a small pillow or sachet for a bit of fragrence, but very much would make for quite a crunchy pillow. 

Patricia Becerra said:
Patricia Becerra's picture

WOW! So much information.  Thanks so much for researching and compiling all this information on pillows in this one article.  I just love Sew4Home website!  Lots of projects and very informative sewing articles.

Rosemary Rivas(nellieduclos@yahoo.com) said:
Rosemary Rivas(nellieduclos@yahoo.com)'s picture

Very informative post about fiberfil.  I hope you are planning to do a post about foam as there are so many kinds.  California recently changed the flammability standards for upholstered fabrics which will eventually be modified at the Federal Level so we no longer have to use fabrics with toxic finishes.  I think these changes are also applicable to foam products and fabrics for children's sleepwear. 

Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home said:
Liz Johnson.Editor.Sew4Home's picture

@ Rosemary Rivas - we do have some articles coming up about a new Project Foam from Fairfield. And yes, they have already addressed the CA standards.